Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Carolingian-Ottonian disc brooches: early Christian symbols in Viking age Denmark. Maria Panum Baastrup, Uta von Freeden (Editor), Herwig Friesinger. I made these typologies of #VikingWeapons in for the book 'Vikinger i krig' ( 'Vikings At War'). They are primarily based upon the work of Jan.
The Viking Age and the Crusades Era in Yngvars saga víðförlaThe North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you can discover a.
Viking Age Art of the Viking Age VideoThe Viking Age: Every Year
Sie Cluedo Notizblock Bonus Viking Age - Das Dokument erscheint in:Miyake has derived his depiction Würfelspiele Mit 6 Würfeln the goddess of death Hel with her dog Garm from a description of her appearance as half bluish-black and half flesh-coloured, indicating that she might be half dead and half alive or partly old and partly young.
Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.
Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed. Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.
Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.
Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.
Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.
Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Visby Sweden , n.
A companion to the Early Middle Ages. Who were the first vikings? Oslo: Universitetets oldsaksamling, UiO. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel.
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XLIX : — Archived from the original on 20 January Furthermore, during the Viking period the old Nordic religion and its gods were replaced by Christianity.
Read also about the magnate from Mammen , who in was buried with significant furnishings, including an ornamental axe and a candle — the old Nordic burial customs combined with the new Christianity.
Another raid was attempted in , without success. They created a small settlement on the northern peninsula of present-day Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows.
Conflict with indigenous peoples and lack of support from Greenland brought the Vinland colony to an end within a few years.
The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand Old Norse words eventually became part of Standard English ; numerous places in the East and North-east of England have Danish names, and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.
The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse influenced the verb to be ; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.
The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement.
The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr , wider and deeper in draft, were customarily used.
The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly defended targets, usually with near impunity.
The effectiveness of these tactics earned Vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates. Chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture.
This slant was accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves.
Little documentary evidence was available until later, when Christian sources began to contribute.
As historians and archaeologists have developed more resources to challenge the one-sided descriptions of the chroniclers, a more balanced picture of the Norsemen has become apparent.
The Vikings used their longships to travel vast distances and attain certain tactical advantages in battle. They could perform highly efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they quickly approached a target, then left as rapidly before a counter-offensive could be launched.
Because of the ships' negligible draft, the Vikings could sail in shallow waters, allowing them to invade far inland along rivers.
The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes. This led to a lesser quality of ships.
While battles at sea were rare, they would occasionally occur when Viking ships attempted to board European merchant vessels in Scandinavian waters.
When larger scale battles ensued, Viking crews would rope together all nearby ships and slowly proceed towards the enemy targets.
While advancing, the warriors hurled spears, arrows, and other projectiles at the opponents. When the ships were sufficiently close, melee combat would ensue using axes, swords, and spears until the enemy ship could be easily boarded.
The roping technique allowed Viking crews to remain strong in numbers and act as a unit, but this uniformity also created problems. A Viking ship in the line could not retreat or pursue hostiles without breaking the formation and cutting the ropes, which weakened the overall Viking fleet and was a burdensome task to perform in the heat of battle.
In general, these tactics enabled Vikings to quickly destroy the meagre opposition posted during raids. Changes in shipbuilding in the rest of Europe led to the demise of the longship for military purposes.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, European fighting ships were built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships.
The nautical achievements of the Vikings were exceptional. For instance, they made distance tables for sea voyages that were remarkably precise.
The archaeological find known as the Visby lenses from the Swedish island of Gotland may be components of a telescope. It appears to date from long before the invention of the telescope in the 17th century.
An archaeological find in Sweden consists of a bone fragment fixated with in-operated material; the piece is as yet undated. These bones might be the remains of a trader from the Middle East.
This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Scandinavian Scotland. Main article: Kingdom of the Isles.
Further information: Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages. Main article: L'Anse aux Meadows. Further information: Viking ship , Viking Age arms and armour.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , p. Northern Shores: a history of the Baltic Sea and its peoples. London: John Murray. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings.
A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p. Online Medieval and Classical Library.
Retrieved 7 June Other Scandinavian areas have only scattered finds: 1, from Denmark and some from Norway. Byzantine coins have been found almost exclusively in Gotland, some See Arkeologi i Norden 2.
Stockholm In , they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing a Viking community in Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.
Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In , Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the Ragnarsson brothers, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.
Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.
On 8 January , Bagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.
Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. In , the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard started a series of raids against England, culminating in a full-scale invasion that led to Sweyn being crowned king of England in Sweyn's son, Cnut the Great , won the throne of England in through conquest.
The Viking presence declined until , when they lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge.
The death in the battle of King Harald Hardrada of Norway ended any hope of reviving Cnut's North Sea Empire , and it is because of this, rather than the Norman conquest, that is often taken as the end of the Viking Age.
Nineteen days later, a large army containing and led by senior Normans, themselves mostly male-line descendants of Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.
The army invited others from across Norman gentry and ecclesiastical society to join them. In , small bands of Vikings began plundering monastic settlements along the coast of Gaelic Ireland.
The Annals of Ulster state that in the Vikings plundered Howth and "carried off a great number of women into captivity". The first were at Dublin and Linn Duachaill.
The Vikings also briefly allied with various Irish kings against their rivals. They were important trading hubs, and Viking Dublin was the biggest slave port in western Europe.
These Viking territories became part of the patchwork of kingdoms in Ireland. Vikings intermarried with the Irish and adopted elements of Irish culture, becoming the Norse-Gaels.
Sigtrygg Silkbeard was "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator" who established Ireland's first mint , in Dublin.
The Dublin Vikings, together with Leinster , twice rebelled against him, but they were defeated in the battles of Glenmama and Clontarf After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".
While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne , Northumbria.
In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.
After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.
These prisoners may have included the ruling family of Alt Clut including the king Arthgal ap Dyfnwal , who was slain the following year under uncertain circumstances.
The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of the realm. The land that now comprises most of the Scottish Lowlands had previously been the northernmost part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , which fell apart with its Viking conquest; these lands were never regained by the Anglo-Saxons, or England.
The upheaval and pressure of Viking raiding, occupation, conquest and settlement resulted in alliances among the formerly enemy peoples that comprised what would become present-day Scotland.
Over the subsequent years, this Viking upheaval and pressure led to the unification of the previously contending Gaelic, Pictish, British, and English kingdoms, first into the Kingdom of Alba , and finally into the greater Kingdom of Scotland.
The last vestiges of Norse power in the Scottish seas and islands were completely relinquished after another years.
The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man. These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs.
The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland, however, claimed supremacy. In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles.
From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.
He found himself ruling not only Norway, but also the Isles, Man, and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.
On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson, Thorstein the Red , and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney, invaded Scotland and were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.
Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and, fearing the bounty on his head, fled to Iceland.
The Norse-Gaelic Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.
Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed on a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland.
The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. However, in , The kingdom was split into two. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles.
In eastern Aberdeenshire , the Danes invaded at least as far north as the area near Cruden Bay. The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of northern Scotland until , when Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the Lion , King of Scots, for his territories on the mainland.
The end of the Viking Age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs , in Ayrshire.
The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year.
Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until , when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland.
Although attempts were made during the 17th and 18th centuries to redeem Shetland, without success,  and Charles II ratifying the pawning in the Act for annexation of Orkney and Shetland to the Crown , explicitly exempting them from any "dissolution of His Majesty's lands",  they are currently considered as being officially part of the United Kingdom.
Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David 's, Haverfordwest , and Gower , among other places.
Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement. According to Sagas, Iceland was discovered by Naddodd , a Viking from the Faroe Islands, after which it was settled by mostly Norwegians fleeing the oppressive rule of Harald Fairhair in While harsh, the land allowed for a pastoral farming life familiar to the Norse.
According to the saga of Erik the Red , when Erik was exiled from Iceland, he sailed west and pioneered Greenland.
A contemporary reference to Kvenland is provided in an Old English account written in the 9th century. It used the information provided by the Norwegian adventurer and traveller named Ohthere.
Kvenland, in that or close to that spelling, is also known from Nordic sources, primarily Icelandic, but also one that was possibly written in the modern-day area of Norway.
All the remaining Nordic sources discussing Kvenland, using that or close to that spelling, date to the 12th and 13th centuries, but some of them—in part at least—are believed to be rewrites of older texts.
The society, economy, settlement and culture of the territory of what is in the present-day the country of Estonia is studied mainly through archaeological sources.
The era is seen to have been a period of rapid change. The Estonian peasant culture came into existence by the end of the Viking Age.
The overall understanding of the Viking Age in Estonia is deemed to be fragmentary and superficial, because of the limited amount of surviving source material.
The main sources for understanding the period are remains of the farms and fortresses of the era, cemeteries and a large amount of excavated objects.
The landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts, some later hillforts on Saaremaa heavily fortified during the Viking Age and on to the 12th century.
The Curonians  were known as fierce warriors, excellent sailors and pirates. They were involved in several wars and alliances with Swedish , Danish and Icelandic Vikings.
According to some opinions, they took part in attacking Sweden's main city Sigtuna in Engaging in trade , piracy , and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki , reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople.
The axes used for combat were light enough to swing with one hand but still capable of delivering a mortal wound. Viking axes were also instrumental in building the famed Viking longboats.
With a single blow, a Viking axe could dismember armored limbs and crack shields and helmets in two. Battles were half won by the mere sight of a battalion of fearless Viking warriors advancing forward with their battle-axes raised.
Besides an axe, a shield was critically important in Viking combat. See The Viking shield: Why is it round, wooden and painted? The biggest reasons that Vikings are so closely associated with axes are that these implements were practical , functional , and, perhaps most importantly, affordable.
During the Middle Ages, certain materials were either very scarce or very expensive. Such was the case with metals like iron and steel , from which the business end of swords and axes were typically made.
While the mighty double-edged sword is considered to be the poster child for Viking military might, the reality is that very few Viking warriors actually owned one.
During the Viking Age , swords were very expensive to make, so only the wealthy and powerful fought with them.Da der Fenriswolf den Göttern in Asgard zu kräftig wird, ersinnen sie eine List, um ihn binden zu können. So Memoria Spiel Tyr seine Hand und die Gefahr durch den Fenriswolf ist gebannt. He then fills Jeremy Dudziak lines with coloured pencil strokes, resulting in colour areas of an intrinsically tight feel.